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Languages spoken in our countries

blog: Languages of Asia

country

dominant
language

what we call it

dominant
language

what they call it

# sp writing
system
#
2nd
(%)

How many can you identify?

How many can you identify?

Malaysia

Malay

Bahasa Malaysia

 10 alphabet
(Latin)
5
(20%)
Selamat datang ke dunia saya
Vietnam

Vietnamese

Tiếng Việt

 75 alphabet
(Latin)
Chào mừng bạn đến với thế giới của tôi
China

Mandarin and
Cantonese

Hànyǔ

935
59

Logo-
graphic
+syllabic
10 歡迎來到我的世界
India

Hindi

Mānak Hindī

 295 abugida 125 मेरी दुनिया में आपका स्वागत है
Thailand

Siamese

Phasa thai

 56 abugida 17
(27%)
ยินดีต้อนรับสู่โลกของฉัน
Indonesia

Malay

Bahasa Indonesia

 77 alphabet
(Latin)
Selamat datang di dunia saya
Japan

Japanese

Nihongo

 125 Logo-
graphic
+syllabic
私の世界へようこそ
S Korea

Korean

Hangugeo

 76 Logo-
graphic
+syllabic
나의 세계에 오신 것을 환영합니다
Ne’lands

Dutch

Nederlands

 23 alphabet
(Latin)
15
(90%)
Welkom in mijn wereld
U.S. English  360 alphabet
(Latin)
43 Welcome to my world

# sp – number of native speakers of that language, regardless of where they live

# 2nd (%) – number in that country who speak English as an additional language. Source: List of countries by English-speaking population


Abugida languages

Hindi and Thai are abugida languages. Each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is obligatory but secondary.

Hindi

Hindi in the Devanagari script, along with English, are official languages of the Federal Government of India.

Devanagari script

Devanagari script

Hindi is more common in Aryan northern India than in Dravidian southern India. It has changed little enough over the last thousand years that a huge body of literature is available in Hindi.

Standard Hindi

Hindi-Urdu

video

audio

Thai

Thai script

Thai script

Thai

No commonly accepted romanization (transcribing Thai into the Latin alphabet). Google Translate uses the most commonly accepted international standard, but it is not used in most other contexts.

Thai is an abugida language. Each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is obligatory but secondary. It has 44 consonants and 15 vowel symbols that combine into at least 28 vowel forms, and four tone marks with five sounds. Each consonant may invoke an inherent vowel sound, described as an implied ‘a’ or ‘o’. Consonants are written horizontally from left to right, with vowels arranged above, below, to the left or to the right of the corresponding consonant or in a combination of those positions.

Thai-Language.com

video – Count to ten from Thaipod101.com

Thai Language Basics – Hello Thank You Goodbye from SpeakingThaiOnline.com


Logographic +syllabic languages

Chinese, Korean, and Japanese are all logographic +syllabic languages, although Korean now uses an alphabet.

Chinese

Cantonese

Cantonese

59 million native speakers in Guangdong (Canton), southern Guangxi (southern China), Hong Kong, Macau

Although Cantonese shares much vocabulary with Mandarin Chinese, the two languages are not mutually intelligible because of pronunciation, grammatical, and also lexical differences. Sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two languages. The use of vocabulary in Cantonese also tends to have more historic roots. One of the most notable differences between Cantonese and Mandarin is how the spoken word is written; with Mandarin the spoken word is written as such, whereas with Cantonese there may not be a direct written word matching what was said. This results in the situation in which a Mandarin and Cantonese text almost look the same, but both are pronounced differently. The two languages have been described as “roughly as similar only as English is to Dutch.” (Wikipedia)

Count to 10 in Cantonese

Mandarin

Mandarin

935 million native speakers, 14% of the world’s population, in China, Taiwan, Singapore. (Next closest is English and Spanish each with little less than 400 million, or 5% of the world’s population.)

Written Chinese (text below from Wikipedia)

Written Chinese is not based predominantly on an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Instead, Chinese characters are glyphs whose components may depict objects or represent abstract notions. Occasionally, a character consists of only one component; more commonly, two or more components are combined, using a variety of different principles, to form more complex characters.

  • Korean, Japanese, Mandarin

    Korean, Japanese, Mandarin

    Pictographs, in which the character is a graphical depiction of the object it denotes.

  • Ideographs, in which the character represents an abstract notion.
  • Logical aggregates, in which two or more parts are used for their meaning. This yields a composite meaning, which is then applied to the new character.
  • Phonetic complexes, in which one part—often called the radical—indicates the general semantic category of the character (such as water-related or eye-related), and the other part is another character, used for its phonetic value.

The vast majority of Chinese characters (about 95 percent) are constructed as either logical aggregates or, more often, phonetic complexes.

YoYoChinese.com’s count to 10 in Mandarin

How to Tell Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Writing Apart

Japanese

Japanese is spoken by about 125 million people, primarily in Japan. video – Count to ten in Japanese

Yuu Asakura’s How To Say Hello In Japanese

From the Wikipedia:

Why Thai and Indonesian aren't like Chinese and Korean

Why Thai and Indonesian aren’t like Chinese and Korean

Japanese has no known genetic relationship with Chinese, but it makes extensive use of Chinese characters, or kanji (漢字?), in its writing system, and a large portion of its vocabulary is borrowed from Chinese. Along with kanji, the Japanese writing system primarily uses two syllabic (or moraic) scripts, hiragana (ひらがな or 平仮名?) and katakana (カタカナ or 片仮名?). Latin script is used in a limited fashion, such as for imported acronyms, and the numeral system uses mostly Arabic numerals alongside traditional Chinese numerals.

Korean

Korean

76 million native speakers in North and South Korea

video – Count to ten in Korean

SweetAndTastyTV.com

Until the 20th century, Korean was written with adapted Chinese characters called hanja. This logographic system was replaced by Hangul, which had been developed in the 1400’s but rarely used.

Hangul is a featural alphabet of 24 consonant and vowel letters. However, instead of being written sequentially like the letters of the Latin alphabet, Hangul letters are grouped into blocks, such as 한 han, each of which transcribes a syllable. That is, although the syllable 한 han may look like a single character, it is actually composed of three letters: ㅎ h, ㅏ a, and ㄴ n. Each syllabic block consists of two to six letters, including at least one consonant and one vowel.

Revised Romanization of Korean

Consonants
Hangul
RR b d j g pp tt jj kk p t ch k s h ss m n ng rl
Vowels
Hangul
RR i e oe ae a o u eo eu ui ye yae ya yo yu yeo wi we wae wa wo

Modern Korean is written with spaces between words, a feature not found in Chinese or Japanese. Korean punctuation marks are almost identical to Western ones. Traditionally, Korean was written in columns, from top to bottom, right to left, but is now usually written in rows, from left to right, top to bottom.


Alphabet languages

Alphabets are used for writing Vietnamese, Indonesian, Malaysian, Dutch, and English

Vietnamese

Speaking of cultural imperialism, the Chinese dominated the people of what is now Vietnam for a millenium, from about 100 BC to 938 AD. About half of the words in Vietnamese are Chinese loan words. In the United States, Vietnamese is now the sixth most spoken language, with over one million speakers, mostly in Texas and California.

How to count to ten in Vietnamese

Indonesian

Indonesian

77 million native speakers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore

Languages of Indonesia

Count to 10 in Bahasa Indonesia

Malaysia

The Malaysian language is normally written using a Latin alphabet called Rumi.

From the Wikipedia’s Malaysian Language:

Malaysian (Malay: Bahasa Malaysia), or Standard Malay, is the official language of Malaysia and a standardised register of the Malacca dialect of Malay. It is over 95% cognate with Indonesian and is spoken natively by over 10 million people. As a second language, it is spoken by an estimated 14 million, mostly Malaysians from ethnic minorities.

Count to 10 in Bahasa Melayu

Rumi script

Today’s written Indonesian and Malaysian use the 26 letters of the basic Latin alphabet due to the colonial influence (aka cultural imperialism) of the English and Dutch. It is sometimes called Tulisan Rumi (“Roman writing”) though now more often just the Malay alphabet.

Some Malay:

PEMAIN FELDA United, Bojan Miladinovic (dua dari kiri) menanduk bola dan melepasi pemain Angkatan Tentera Malaysia (ATM) pada perlawanan Liga Super di Stadium Selayang. FELDA menang 2-1 ke atas ATM. – Foto Muhd Asyraf Sawal

Dutch

Dutch is the closest language to English, often characterized as between English and German. It shares a core vocabulary and word order with German and doesn’t have as many words borrowed from French as English. Dutch is a first language for about 23 million and a second language for another 5 million people.

English: What do you do when you see things that no one has ever seen before?
Nederlands: Wat doe je als je dingen ziet dat niemand ooit heeft gezien?

from Business Insider

Dutch is both structurally and syntactically familiar for English speakers.

In terms of pronunciation and vocabulary, it parallels English in many ways, such as groen (green) or de oude man (the old man).

In addition to familiar Germanic root words, the Dutch language adopted many loan words from French as did English, with familiar words like drogeren (drug) and blok (block).

Though some vowel sounds may be new for English speakers, Dutch pronunciation follows the English model of syllable stress, so pronouncing Dutch words is somewhat intuitive.

Dutch is similar to German, but because it has no cases and a less complicated grammatical system, many linguistic scholars consider Dutch to be the easiest language for English speakers.

DutchPod101‘s video: count to ten in Dutch